Human Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses in Skin Cancer

Image Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer type among Caucasians. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma is 60-250 times higher in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients when compared to the general population. An etiologic role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) from genus beta has been suggested for many years because of their well-documented carcinogenicity in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). In addition to the EV patients, their carcinogenic activity has been strengthened in recent years by refined epidemiologic studies and molecular biology, demons... Read More

Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cancers other than lung cancer

Image There is increasing recognition in the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the etiology of various cancers. Strong mechanistic evidence and carcinogenicity in several animal species has been reported for benzo[a]pyrene, a prototype PAH. Based on this mechanistic evidence and increased risk of lung and skin cancers in several occupations with heavy exposure to PAHs, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified benzo[a]pyrene and those occupations as carcinogenic to human. However, although an association between PAHs and some other cancers, e.g. urinary bladd... Read More

Malassezia

Image Malassezia yeast exist on all humans and have long been associated with healthy and diseased skin. In this Article Collection of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology; Fungal Pathogenesis, we will present multiple papers outlining the state of the art in understanding the role Malassezia in skin health and disease. Over the last thirty years, the term “microbiome” has grown exponentially in scientific discourse, generating hundreds of thousands of publications and patents. Although the human-associated microbial community consists of bacteria, fungi, viruses... Read More

Hair Bundles - Development, Maintenance, and Function

Image Inner ear hair cells are characterized by their hairy-looking cell protrusions called hair bundles on the apical cell surface. Hair bundles of each hair cell consist of hundreds of F-actin-based stereocilia and one microtubule-based kinocilium. The stereocilia are organized into several rows of different heights, forming a U-shaped or V-shaped staircase-like pattern. The stereocilium tapers at its base, and a few core actin filaments continue to insert into the F-actin matrix (the cuticular plate) underneath the apical surface. The vertices of U-shaped or V-shaped stereocilia on neighboring... Read More

Melanoma genetics/genomics

Image Melanoma is a complex disease driven both by genetic and environmental risk factors, and requires multiple genetic mutations in the evolution from benign nevus into malignant melanoma (MM). Genetic studies of familial and sporadic melanoma have revealed surprising insights into the molecular pathogenesis of this deadly cancer. Collectively, the molecular data show there are four signature pathways involved in melanomagenesis: activation of the RAS?RAF?MEK?ERK and PI3K?AKT pathways and inactivation of the INK4a?RB and ARF?P53 pathways (Chin, 2003). Acting in a coordinated manner, these pathw... Read More

Mast Cells in Itch, Pain and Neuro-inflammation

Image Mast cells are ubiquitously present in most tissues, especially surfaces exposed to the environment, close to blood vessels and nerve fibers, as well as in the meninges and the hypothalamus. Mast cells serve as environmental ‘sensors’ and communicate with hormonal, immune and neural systems leading to immune and inflammatory responses. Mast cells serve as first responders with an inherent ability to rapidly release a plethora of mediators, often selectively, depending on exogenous, or endogenous stimuli. In addition to the classical IgE-dependent mode of stimulation, mast cells ... Read More

Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers

Image New therapies are currently being developed in the field of skin cancer. In particular, advances in melanoma now represent the frontline of cancer immunotherapy, as immunological findings in the disease have led to the development of highly effective immune-checkpoint inhibitors. However, these immune-checkpoint inhibitors are only effective in a subset of patients, and may not work in other skin cancer types, thus highlighting the need for further innovation in the field of skin cancer treatment. The purpose of this Research Topic is therefore to provide an up-to-date overview of... Read More

New Therapies and Immunological Findings in Melanoma

Image New therapies are currently being developed in the field of skin cancer. In particular, advances in melanoma now represent the frontline of cancer immunotherapy, as immunological findings in the disease have led to the development of highly effective immune-checkpoint inhibitors. However, these immune-checkpoint inhibitors are only effective in a subset of patients, and may not work in other skin cancer types, thus highlighting the need for further innovation in the field of skin cancer treatment. The purpose of this Research Topic is therefore to provide an up-to-date overview of... Read More

Smart Strategies to Reuse Natural Materials as Drug Delivery Platforms

Image Recently, macromolecules obtained from biomasses, residues or by-products of industrial processes have attracted the interest of the scientific community as valid and green alternatives to polymers of fossil origins. In fact, the substitution of synthetic materials with naturally-derived systems represents an extremely urgent target to effectively achieve sustainable production strategies, within the UN Sustainable Development Goals frame. In this context, food, textile and paper industries may be considered as sources of renewable resources for bio-based material production. Dist... Read More

Nicotinic Alpha9 and Alpha10 Subunits: Ancient Receptors in Modern Times and Modern Places

Image Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion-gated channels that have diverse function in nervous and non-nervous tissues. The α9 and α10 subunits are members of the subfamily I, epithelial ion-gated nicotinic receptor gene family. These subunits are the most recently discovered (and perhaps the last to be discovered) nAChR subunits in mammals, but are phylogenetically the oldest. The α9 and α10 subunits are not expressed in the mammalian brain, making them unique among nAChRs. They were first localized in cochlear hair cells. As a consequence of thei... Read More

Recent Developments in Therapies and Diagnostic Tools for Melanoma and Non-melanoma Skin Cancer

Image This research comprises three sections: 1) recent therapeutic options for advanced melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers; 2) investigation of biomarkers to predict the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) for melanoma and non-melanoma patients; and 3) novel diagnostic tools for skin cancers. The last 5 years have seen a great paradigm shift in the treatment of skin cancers, particularly for advanced melanoma. Indeed, once immune checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF inhibitors became available, therapeutic strategies for the treatment of advanced melanoma have changed markedly, prolonging ... Read More

Melatonin in Health and Disease

Image While some hormones are “trophic” in terms of their target tissues being primarily other endocrine cells (e.g. TSH, ACTH, gonadotrophins, etc.), most hormones are “pleiotropic” in as much as their target tissues are numerous and functionally heterogeneous. Thyroid hormones, insulin, adrenocorticoids and sex steroids are among the most obvious examples of this. The hormone of the brain’s pineal gland, melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) is another notable member of this class, with some interesting parallels to the other hormones mentioned. For example, lik... Read More

Disorders of Follicular Occlusion: Exploring Pathogenic Mechanisms to Identify Novel Therapeutic Targets

Image Disorders of Follicular Occlusion include the conditions Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS), Dissecting Cellulitis of the Scalp (DCS), Acne Congolobata (AC) and Pilonidal Sinus Disease (PD). All of these disorders are chronic, burdensome diseases with few efficacious therapeutic options. The prevailing pathogenic paradigm in these disorders are follicular occlusion via a variety of endogenous and exogenous mechanisms, resulting in follicular rupture and dermal inflammatory response. The term ‘disorders of follicular occlusion’ was first coined in 1956 by Pillsbury, Shelley ... Read More

Sarcoidosis

Image Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unclear etiology with the potential affection of major organs. It most commonly affects the lungs, skin, eyes, and lymph nodes. Less frequent, though possibly underestimated, manifestations are rheumatic and renal disease. As a systemic disease, it can present in numerous ways and mimic many other conditions, including infections and cancer. While it has been proposed that an abnormal immunologic response to antigens leads to granulomatous inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals, much has to be learned. Sarcoidosis can present ... Read More

Mineral Nutrient Sensing and Signaling

Image Macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate, sulphate and micronutrients such as iron, copper and zinc are essential for various aspects of plant growth and development, but these elements may also be toxic if accumulated in the plant cell in excess. Non-essential elements like cadmium, arsenic, and aluminum are potentially highly toxic; however they are increasingly being emitted into the environment due to anthropogenic activities. Soils often challenge sessile plants with poor availability of essential minerals or elevated concentrations of toxic elements. These challenges are often exace... Read More

Hormone Receptors and Breast Cancer

Image Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The vast majority of breast cancers arise from epithelial cells, either in the ducts or lobules, as a consequence of genetic and epigenetic alterations, which lead to aberrant growth control and disruption of intracellular signalling at the tissue level. For these reasons, breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple sub-types, with distinct cells of origin and etiology. The increased expression of estrogen receptors (ER), that occurs at the ea... Read More

The Genetics and Genomics of Melanoma and Benign Melanocytic Neoplasms

Image This collated research topic comprises three main sections: 1) Genetic susceptibility of melanoma and benign melanocytic neoplasms; 2) genomic analysis/molecular characterization of melanoma and benign melanocytic neoplasms; and 3) biomarkers of melanoma progression. Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises from melanocytes of the skin and other organs. The incidence of cutaneous melanoma, which is the most aggressive of the common skin cancers, is rapidly increasing especially in Caucasian populations. Melanocyte transformation occurs when DNA repair or cell-cycle control mec... Read More

Strategies in the treatment of Melanoma

Image For many years melanoma was considered a significant challenge by oncologists. In 2011 the story changed because of the approval of ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, and vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor active on BRAF mutated melanoma. These two revolutionary drugs completely changed the management of metastatic melanoma and, for the first time, became possible to achieve a significative impact on overall survival. To improve the efficacy of ipilimumab and vemurafenib have been designed clinical trials, now ongoing, of combination with other targeted agents (e.g. MEK inhibitors) a... Read More

Regeneration of Cutaneous Wounds and Inflammation in Healing

Image   Cutaneous wounds are a largely unrecognized, spiraling epidemic that affects millions of people worldwide. Healing and regeneration of wounds is a complex process that has at its core a functional inflammatory response that initiates the repair process and fights against infective pathogens. Wound inflammation is a tightly regulated process involving neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, and various leukocytes and tissue restoration mechanisms working in concert to allow healing and tissue restoration following injury. However, in many conditions, dysregulated and/or prolon... Read More

Wound recognition across the tree of life

Image All multicellular organisms must detect injury to mount adequate responses. Plants respond with induced resistance, animals with local immunity and regeneration, and fungi exhibit wound-induced conidiation. Intact cells perceive damage-associated molecular patters (DAMPs) in the extracellular space as 'danger signals' to recognise damage before infection occurs. Molecules such as extracellular ATP and fragments of the cell wall or the extra- or intracellular matrix function as DAMPs in organisms across different kingdoms. All these DAMPs represent fragments of larger molecules or in... Read More

Neutrophil-mediated skin diseases: immunology and genetics

Image Neutrophil-mediated skin diseases encompass a wide spectrum of diseases characterized by polymorphic cutaneous manifestations. They are histopathologically hallmarked by sterile neutrophilic infiltrates involving the skin and, more rarely, the internal organs. Neutrophil-mediated skin diseases share clinicopathological features with those of autoinflammatory diseases, which present in patients with recurrent episodes of aseptic inflammation in the affected organs in absence of allergy or frank autoimmunity. In classic autoinflammatory diseases, mutations in genes regulating innate immune re... Read More

Inflammation in Healing and Regeneration of Cutaneous Wounds

Image Cutaneous wounds are a largely unrecognized, spiraling epidemic that affects millions of people worldwide. Healing and regeneration of wounds is a complex process that has at its core a functional inflammatory response that initiates the repair process and fights against infective pathogens. Wound inflammation is a tightly regulated process involving neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, and various leukocytes and tissue restoration mechanisms working in concert to allow healing and tissue restoration following injury. However, in many conditions, dysregulated and/or prolonged inflammation ... Read More

Sarcoidosis – the great mimicker

Image Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unclear etiology with the potential affection of major organs. It most commonly affects the lungs, skin, eyes, and lymph nodes. Less frequent, though possibly underestimated, manifestations are rheumatic and renal disease. As a systemic disease, it can present in numerous ways and mimic many other conditions, including infections and cancer. While it has been proposed that an abnormal immunologic response to antigens leads to granulomatous inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals, much has to be learned. Sarcoidosis can present ... Read More

Advance In B-cell therapies for the Treatment of Rheumatic Disease

Image B-cells have multiple pathogenic roles in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). The two most evaluated strategies for B-cell blockade over the last two decades are B-cell depletion and inhibition of B-cell survival factors (BAFF and/or APRIL). Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody depletes B-cells by targeting CD20, although the depth, duration of depletion and clinical response may vary between patients. Recent data have supported the efficacy of reduced rituximab dose and the different retreatment strategies in both its licensed indications; rheumatoid arthritis and... Read More

Biomaterials for Skin Wound Repair

Image It is often overseen that the skin or integument is the biggest organ of the human body. Moreover, skin importance spans different fields, from esthetics and social interactions to various diseases and their multiple upshots. Notably, skin and internal organs are bidirectionally related: an organ disease can alter skin structure and function, and vice versa. An example of this mutual relationship is acute or chronic urticaria (hives) with or without angioedema, which affects wide skin areas and is caused by immune reactions to foreign antigens, autoimmunity, malignancy, and so on. The rever... Read More

Hair Follicle Stem Cell Regeneration in Aging

Image Tissues and organs undergo structural and functional declines in the aging process, with a gradual decrease in regenerative ability. The hair follicle is a complex mini-organ that undergoes cyclic self-renewal during postnatal life, as the follicle contains stem cells that can be activated and silenced cyclically. Thus, it serves as an excellent model for studying regeneration. However, follicles gradually lose hairs and stem cells enter quiescence or differentiate into other skin epithelial lineages during aging. This process is largely influenced by intrinsic epigenetic status and extrins... Read More

Malassezia: A Skin Commensal Yeast Impacting Both Health And Disease

Image Malassezia yeast existS on all humans and have long been associated with healthy and diseased skin. In this Article Collection of Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology; Fungal Pathogenesis, we will present multiple papers outlining the state of the art in understanding the role Malassezia in skin health and disease. Over the last thirty years, the term “microbiome” has grown exponentially in scientific discourse, generating hundreds of thousands of publications and patents. Although the human-associated microbial community consists of bacteria, fungi, viruse... Read More

Genetics in Human Skin Diseases

Image Over the past decades, large numbers of genes and genomic regions involved in human complex diseases have been revealed through linkage analysis, candidate gene study, and genome-wide linkage study. These help to determine the position of the genetic marker inherited with a complex disease. Since 2005, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been proved to be the most powerful and efficient study design for identifying genetic variants that are associated with complex diseases. More than twenty kinds of skin diseases and traits have been investigated by this approach including... Read More

Cutaneous B-cell Lymphomas

Image Primary cutaneous lymphomas (PCLs) are non-Hodgkin lymphomas that are present only in the skin at the time of diagnosis, and without evidence of extracutaneous manifestations. Among extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, PCLs are the second most frequently observed type after gastrointestinal lymphomas. PCLs occur at an incidence of 1 per 100,000 persons annually, and about 25% to 30% of all are Cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCLs). CBCLs can be further classified according to clinical behavior as either aggressive or indolent. Indolent CBCLs include primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (PCMZL... Read More

Affectivity beyond the Skin

Image This Research Topic will be an interdisciplinary collection of papers by philosophers, psychologists and social scientists. The proposed topic is an exploration of the scaffolded or environmentally supported nature of affectivity. Standard approaches in philosophy and psychology characterize affective states (such as specific emotions and moods) as states of a person’s brain and body. This Research Topic will explore the extent to which affective states also importantly depend upon structures and processes in the environment. In particular, it will explore the way in which people acti... Read More

Tactile Stickiness Perception

Image "The bandage keeps coming off my arm, but it definitely sticks to my fingertip." Some people might have a similar experience. From this phenomenon, we can bring up several interesting questions. Why does the stickiness vary from location to location on the skin? What information is computed from the sticky surface elements and how? What is the relationship between physical and perceptual stickiness? Unfortunately, at the moment, little information is mounted to answer these questions. Previous studies revealed that the tactile sense of stickiness is aroused when the skin is stretc... Read More

Insights into Biomarkers, Cytokines, and Chemokines in Skin Cancer

Image Understanding the microenvironment within skin cancers is key for the development of new preventative and therapeutic treatment options. Research advances in skin cancers such as melanoma have revolutionized immunotherapeutic treatment options, for example through the provision of checkpoint inhibitor trials that have benefitted not just melanoma patients, but also patients with a wide array of other cancers, including less readily accessible cancer types. However, checkpoint inhibitor success is limited in melanoma and unlikely to become the mainstay of treatment for other skin cancer type... Read More

Combination strategies in the treatment of Melanoma

Image For many years melanoma was considered a significant challenge by oncologists. In 2011 the story changed because of the approval of ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, and vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor active on BRAF mutated melanoma. These two revolutionary drugs completely changed the management of metastatic melanoma and, for the first time, became possible to achieve a significative impact on overall survival. To improve the efficacy of ipilimumab and vemurafenib have been designed clinical trials, now ongoing, of combination with other targeted agents (e.g. MEK inhibitors) a... Read More

Sleep and Aging

Image Life expectancy is on the rise worldwide. Within the US alone, it is estimated that 20% of the population will be over the age of 65 years by 2030. Normal aging results in a relentless deterioration of both sleep and wakefulness. This includes sleep fragmentation and the inability to sustain wakefulness during the active phase in humans and rodents. Impairments in both behavioral states become more pronounced in many age-dependent neurodegenerative processes. Impaired wakefulness interferes with cognitive function and quality of life for millions of older Americans. Recent data indicates th... Read More

Skin Blistering Diseases

Image Skin blistering is commonly caused by mechanical, physical or infectious insults. More rarely, mutations of structural components of the skin or autoimmunity directed against those structural components lead to skin blistering. Skin blistering is commonly caused by mechanical, physical or infectious insults. More rarely, mutations of structural components of the skin or autoimmunity directed against those structural components lead to skin blistering. Albeit among the less frequent causes of skin blistering, understanding of the pathomechanisms of hereditary and autoimmune skin bl... Read More

Biologic Drugs in Autoimmune Diseases

Image In the current therapy of autoimmune disease, a significant progress has been made in terms of introducing novel, mostly biologic, drugs in place of chemical molecules. These biologic agents enhance or replace conventional immunosuppressive therapies. Their mechanism of action consists in disrupting the inflammatory process. The categories of biologics include inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, T cells, B cells, or JAK. Biologics, or biologic-response modifiers, may be prescribed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including many types of arthritis (e.g., rheumatoid ar... Read More

Autoinflammatory Keratinization Disease (AiKD)

Image As the research in the field of Dermatology has been increasing day-by-day, the clinical investigations and trails are also been advanced. Inflammation caused by the hyper-activation of innate immunity due to genetic factors occasionally leads to inflammatory keratinization diseases of the skin. Such inflammatory keratinization diseases with genetic autoinflammatory pathogeneses are called “autoinflammatory keratinization diseases” (AiKD). AiKD also includes diseases with mixed pathological mechanisms of autoinflammation and autoimmunity. AiKD have primary genetic caus... Read More

Skin Autoimmunity

Image In the last few decades, autoimmune diseases have become a major clinical burden. The reasons for this are manifold, including (i) increasing incidence; (ii) the lack of therapies that target the underlying cause of the specific disease in question and (iii) the high rate of adverse events due to prolonged, unspecific immunosuppression. The skin is one of the largest organs of the human body and several autoimmune diseases manifest at the skin. These include skin-specific autoimmune diseases and cutaneous manifestations of systemic autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, with the recent success o... Read More

Cosmeceuticals from Medicinal Plants

Image If "drugs" have been defined as compounds used in the treatment and prevention of diseases, or are intended to affect a physiological function, "cosmetics" have been labelled as substances that clean or enhance the appearance of the skin without therapeutic benefits. There is also a grey area bordering these two fields, for which the term "cosmeceuticals" has been defined. “Cosmeceuticals” are described as hybrids between drugs and cosmetic products which are able to enhance both health and beauty of the skin by external application. Cosmeceuticals,... Read More

Skin Functions and Mechanisms

Image The search for further knowledge on skin functions and mechanisms is at the core of many biomedical and biopharmaceutical research programs today. The extension and complexity of the skin justifies its multiple roles, affecting all physiological processes, far beyond its “barrier” characteristics. More research on skin physiology is needed to better understand various disease mechanisms, and these need not be confined to the skin itself. Skin is also a target for new molecules, supplements, materials and even instruments, with the potential to impact the whole body. Because of i... Read More

Challenges of Acne and Rosacea Treatment

Image On behalf of the Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research, as Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honor and privilege to inform you that, it’s been ten long years we have started the Journal and now we are celebrating the 10th Anniversary and it is my great pleasure and honor to welcome you to the Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research ... Read More